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Indian reserves , established in Canadian law by treaties such as Treaty 7 , are the very limited contemporary lands of First Nations recognized by the non-indigenous governments.

There are more reserves in Canada than there are First Nations, as First Nations were ceded multiple reserves by treaty. First Nations can be grouped into cultural areas based on their ancestors' primary lifeway , or occupation, at the time of European contact.

These culture areas correspond closely with physical and ecological regions of Canada. Ethnographers commonly classify indigenous peoples of the Americas in the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits called cultural areas.

See the individual article on each tribe , band society or First Nation. The Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast communities centred around ocean and river fishing; in the interior of British Columbia , hunting and gathering and river fishing.

In both of these areas, salmon was of chief importance. For the people of the plains, bison hunting was the primary activity. In the subarctic forest , other species such as the moose were more important.

For peoples near the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, shifting agriculture was practised, including the raising of maize, beans, and squash.

Today, Aboriginal people work in a variety of occupations and live outside their ancestral homes. The traditional cultures of their ancestors, shaped by nature, still exert a strong influence on their culture, from spirituality to political attitudes.

First Nations peoples face a number of problems to a greater degree than Canadians overall, some with living conditions comparable to developing countries like Haiti.

Canada's federal residential school system began in the mids, building upon a patchwork of boarding schools established and operated by various Christian denominations.

Member of Parliament for Assiniboia West, Nicholas Flood Davin, produced a report, known generally as the Davin Report, that recommended the establishment of a school system similar to that being created in the United States.

One of its chief goals was to remove Aboriginal children from "the influence of the wigwam", which he claimed was stronger than that of existing day schools, and keep them instead "constantly within the circle of civilized conditions".

While the history of the Indian Residential School system IRS is a checkered one, much criticism has been levelled at both the system and those who established and supported it.

Neglect and poor nutrition were often what Aboriginal children experienced, particularly in the early decades of the system's operation.

The stripping away of traditional native culture—sometimes referred to as "cultural genocide"—is another charge levelled at the residential schools.

In many schools, students were not allowed to speak their Indigenous languages or practice any of their own customs, and thus lost their sense of identity, inevitably driving a cultural wedge between children and their family.

By , attendance at some sort of school was mandatory for Aboriginal children in Canada. The Indian Act made education compulsory, and where there were no federal days schools—or, in later decades, a provincial public school—a residential school was the only choice.

In some cases, children could return home on weekends and holidays, but for those in schools established far away from remote communities, this was not possible.

The removal of children from their families and communities brought short and long term harm to many native communities.

While many schools had infirmaries and provided medical care in later decades, abuse of various kinds and crowded conditions in the first decades of the IRS history led to poor health and even death for a percentage of those enrolled.

It has been argued that the psychological and emotional trauma resulting from both the abuse and the removal of the children from their families and culture has resulted in substance abuse, greater domestic violence, unemployability, and increased rates of suicide.

Former students are now routinely referred to as "survivors". Not all Aboriginal children attended residential schools.

During the period in which the schools operated, more than a third of indigenous children attended federal day schools, and about a third received no schooling at all.

It is however the residential school system that receives much of the blame for the various problems and challenges facing Canada's indigenous people today.

During the years in which the residential schools operated, they were regarded by most Canadians as a sensible and beneficial solution to native education, and in some cases, Aboriginal communities specifically requested that a residential school be built.

When the system began to closing down in the s, a significant number of communities asked that their school remain open. The last Canadian residential school to close was Gordon Indian Residential School in Saskatchewan, founded in , and closed in The Christian denominations that operated the schools on behalf of the federal government have expressed regret and issued apologies for their part in a system that harmed many indigenous children.

In , the government issued an official apology to the students who were forced to attend the residential schools and their families.

In June , the federally-established Truth and Reconciliation Commission, charged with investigating and reporting on the residential school system, issued its summary report, and in December of the same year, its final report.

Chief Commissioner, Judge Murray Sinclair, has publicly declared the residential school system a deliberate act of cultural genocide against First Nations peoples.

In its report, the commission submitted 94 recommendations to the Canadian government, recommendations which, if implemented, would substantially improve indigenous race relations, increase quality of life for survivors and extended families, and help undo the damage caused by residential schools.

While the Liberal government, under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, has committed itself to improving the lives of Canada's indigenous people, and specifically to implementing the TRC recommendations, some of those recommendations may be beyond the power of the Canadian government.

The countless research documents assembled by the TRC will be archived in a special repository at the University of Manitoba.

It is not unlikely for Aboriginal women living in poverty to not only tend to their own needs, but often tend to the needs of their elderly parents, care for loved ones in ill-health, as well as raising children; all of which is often supported only on a single income.

It is believed that homelessness and inadequate shelter are widespread problems facing Aboriginal families, in all settings.

A paramount conclusion by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples is that the repeated assaults on the culture and collective identity of the Aboriginal people has resulted in a weakened foundation of Aboriginal society and has contributed to the alienation that inevitably drives some to self-destructive and antisocial behaviour.

The social problems among Aboriginal people are, in large measure, a legacy of history. Aboriginals are also more likely to be the victims of crime.

This is particularly true in the younger population aged 15—34 , where acts of violence are two and a half times more likely to occur than in the older population.

This is especially true of males. Lack of education, poverty, unemployment and abuse all lead to higher crime rates. Also, statistically, Aboriginals have a greater chance of conviction and subsequently, incarceration once convicted.

They are also much less likely to receive parole during their sentence. The Canadian federal government is responsible for health and social services on the reserve and in Inuit communities, while the provincial and territorial governments provide services elsewhere.

The divide between each level of government has led to a gap in services for Aboriginal people living off-reserve and in Canadian towns and cities.

Although Aboriginal people living off-reserve have access to the programs and services designed for the general population, these programs and services do not address the specific needs of Aboriginal people, nor is it delivered in a culturally appropriate way.

It has not been until recently that the Canadian federal government had to increase recognition to the needs for programs and services for Aboriginal people in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities.

It is however funding that lags the growth of urban Aboriginal populations and the uncoordinated delivery of services through various government departments would also pose as a barrier.

The federal subcommittee on Indigenous child welfare described a "jurisdictional web" in which there is little to no coordination with or between municipal, provincial and federal levels of government.

The health care services available to Aboriginal people is rarely delivered in a culturally sensitive approach. It is the constant cast of "the other" by the settler Canadian population that contaminates the delivery of such necessary services to Aboriginal peoples.

It was argued by Ontario finance minister Jim Flaherty in that the Canadian government could boost health-care funding for "real people in real towns" by cutting the bureaucracy that serves only Aboriginal peoples.

These types of statements, especially made by people often heard by a greater audience, are said to have detrimental and influential effects on the overall attitudes of settler population folks, as well as Aboriginal peoples.

There are marked differences between the epidemiology of diabetes in First Nation population compared to the general population.

Reasons for the different rate of Type 2 Diabetes between First Nation and the general population include a complex combination of environmental lifestyle, diet, poverty and genetic and biological factors e.

Age-standardized rates show that the prevalence of diabetes among First Nations individuals living on-reserve is It is important to note that Aboriginal individuals are generally diagnosed at a younger age than non-Aboriginal individuals, and Aboriginal females experience higher rates of gestational diabetes than non-Aboriginal females.

The complications and prevalence of diabetes are seen among the Aboriginal population more often than non-Aboriginal population.

First Nations in Canada carry a disproportionate burden of the harms related to substance use. Life expectancy at birth is significantly lower for First Nations babies than for babies in the Canadian population as a whole.

In males the life expectancy for First Nations individuals was 69 years as opposed to 77 in the general population.

Overall, First Nations individuals have some of the highest rates of suicide globally. Suicide rates are more than twice the sex-specific rate and also three times the age-specific rates of non-Aboriginal Canadians.

This leads to differing expectations and cultural clashes within the community, the family and the individual. At the community level, a general economic disadvantage is seen, exacerbated by unemployment and low education levels, leading to poverty, political disempowerment and community disorganization.

The family suffers through a loss of tradition as they attempt to assimilate into mainstream Canadian culture. These lead to low self-esteem in the individual as First Nations culture and tradition are marginalized affecting one's sense of self-identity.

These factors combine to create a world where First Nations individuals feel they cannot identify completely as Aboriginal, nor can they fully identify as mainstream Canadians.

When that balance cannot be found, many particularly youths turn to suicide as a way out. Approximately First Nation communities in Canada have had, and continue to have serious problems with the quality of their drinking water.

The residents of Neskantaga First Nation in Ontario have been forced to boil their water for the past 20 years to make it safe.

Many First Nations are in the process of negotiating a modern treaty, which would grant them treaty rights.

These grievances often originate from a breach of treaty obligations or of the Indian Act by the government of Canada. They can also involve mismanagement of indigenous land or assets by the Crown.

Across Canada, there has been a large number of missing and murdered Aboriginal women since This amounts to almost 1, Aboriginal females either missing or murdered in just over 30 years.

This publication documents the official findings of this demographic as well as advises for future change. It finds that there are Aboriginal women still missing and 1, murdered, making for a total of 1, Additionally, there are shared characteristics among these cases: most of the murders were committed by men and were someone the victim knew, either a partner or an acquaintance.

Self-governance and preservation of indigenous territories become increasingly difficult as natural resources continue to be exploited by foreign companies.

Projects such as "mining, logging, hydroelectric construction, large-scale export oriented agribusiness or oil exploration" [ attribution needed ] are usually coupled with environmental degradation and occasionally violence and militarization.

Privatization of public services and reduction in the universality of health care produces negative repercussions for those of lower socioeconomic status in rural locations; these downsides are magnified for female Aboriginals.

Approximately 2, aboriginal people were murdered in Canada between and , out of 15, murders in Canada overall. Of the 2, murdered aboriginal Canadians, fully 71 per cent — 1, — were male.

According to summaries of seven consultation sessions posted to a government website, the desire to dedicate some attention to violence against indigenous men and boys has come up at four of the meetings.

These calls to extend the scope of the inquiry to include missing and murdered aboriginal people of all genders have met with resistance and been criticized as detracting from the current focus on the issue of missing and murdered aboriginal women.

Barbara Bailey, who was on the UN team that visited Canada in to investigate the violence, has said, "I think to detract now would really be a tragedy.

Let's fix that problem first and then we can begin to see what else is out there. Speaking on the matter, Minister of Indigenous Affairs , Carolyn Bennett has said, "Our mandate now is to get to the bottom of the tragedy of missing and murdered indigenous women and girls in Canada", citing sexism as being of specific concern.

Dawn Lavell-Harvard, the president of the Native Women's Association of Canada , has also weighed in on the issue by saying, "Absolutely [men] deserve the same amount of attention, just not necessarily in the same forum", neither that forum nor an equal level of attention have yet to materialize.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Term used for Indigenous peoples in Canada. For Canadians with heritage from the Indian subcontinent, see Indo-Canadians.

First Nation flags. Indigenous cultures Indigenous personalities Country food Music. Traditional beliefs Inuit religion.

See also: Section 35 of the Constitution Act, See also: European colonization of the Americas. Main article: Slavery in Canada. Main article: Meech Lake Accord.

Main article: Indian Act. Main article: Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. See also: Grand River land dispute and Kelowna Accord.

Notwithstanding any other Act of Parliament or any Act of the legislature of a province See also: Mythologies of the indigenous peoples of North America and Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Main article: Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas. Main article: Indigenous music of Canada. See also: Blackfoot music , Iroquois music , and Kwakwaka'wakw music.

Further information: Canadian Indian residential school system and List of Indian residential schools in Canada. Main article: First Nations and diabetes.

Main article: Indigenous land claims in Canada. Main article: Missing and murdered Indigenous women. Further information: AmINext. Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal Canada portal.

The Daily. Statistics Canada. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. October 1, Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved January 21, Assembly of First Nations.

Retrieved November 25, The Assembly of First Nations. Archived from the original on August 2, Retrieved October 6, Employer Obligations. Canadian Human Rights Commission.

Retrieved December 21, Dictionary, Census of Population, October 25, A Social History of Canada. Europe and the People Without History.

University of California Press. Codex canadiensis. Library and Archives Canada. August 1, Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved October 7, University of Nebraska Press.

Archived from the original on January 12, ICC International. Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada. The Canadian Atlas Online.

Canadian Geographic. Retrieved October 9, UBC Press. The Fraser Institute. Public Works and Government Services Canada. Indigenous Affairs and Northern Development Canada.

Archived from the original on August 13, Retrieved April 12, I-5, s. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on July 3, Thompson Educational.

The Native Canadian Anthology. Nimbus Publishing CN. Economic Botany. Squamish Legends: The First People. Oliver N. Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest.

October 16, The Canadian Encyclopedia online ed. Historica Canada. Akwesasne Notes. New Series. Hewitt ed. The Assiniboine. University of Oklahoma Press.

Ojibway Heritage. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. In Lyle Campbell ; Marianne Mithun eds. University of Texas Press. July 22, Archived from the original on June 12, CBC News.

April 25, Archived from the original on February 2, Archived from the original on May 1, Dying and Death in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

In Michael R. Haines; Richard Hall Steckel eds. A Population History of North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rotting Face: Smallpox and the American Indian. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press. Retrieved April 15, Translated by Käthe Roth.

McGill-Queen's Press. The Fur Trade and the Northwest to Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited. May 19, Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved July 1, NY: Spiegel and Grau.

Cambridge University Press. Gabriel Dumont Institute. Family Life in Native America. Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved August 31, April 28, Slavery in the New World.

HarperCollins Canada. William and Mary Quarterly. Rushforth confuses the two Vincennes explorers. Saskatchewan Education.

Archived from the original on July 21, August 28, Retrieved June 3, Heidler, and Jeanne T. Goltz, "Tecumseh".

Northwest Ohio Quarterly. History of the Canadian Peoples, —present. Pearson Education Canada. Archived from the original on November 23, Riel: a life of revolution.

HarperCollins , Toronto. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. August 26, Archived from the original on November 24, Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto Revisited.

Archived from the original on August 21, First Nations drum. Archived from the original on April 19, Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved January 19, Americas News.

Deutsche Presse-Agentur. June 11, Archived from the original on January 29, Globe and Mail. Archived from the original Digitised online by Heyoka Magazine on April 13, Retrieved October 13, Vancouver: UBC Press, p.

Manitoba Government. Retrieved September 11, Electoral Insight. Elections Canada. Retrieved April 29, Archived from the original PDF on November 2, Journal of Canadian Studies.

CBS Interactive Inc. Archived from the original on January Environmental Management. Bibcode : EnMan JACS Conference Japanese Association for Canadian Studies.

Archived from the original PDF on October 14, Retrieved December 14, CBC TV. November 1, University of Stirling. Archived from the original PDF on July 18, A4 , Apr.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. December Archived from the original PDF on December 2, Health Canada.

Archived from the original PDF on January 11, July Marshall European Center for Security Studies Marshall European Center for Security Studies.

March 25, Archived from the original on March 28, Maple Leaf Web. Department of Political Science, University of Lethbridge. Archived from the original on March 12, Archived from the original on July 30, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.

Canadian Government Publishing. Archived from the original on October 1, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 20, Archived from the original on October 16, Toronto: theStar.

Retrieved December 27, December 23, Archived from the original on January 13, University of Alberta. Toronto Star. Assembly of First Nations and Government of Canada.

Archived from the original PDF on August 16, Bartlett, Indians and Taxation in Canada , 3d ed. Saskatoon: Native Law Centre, pp.

I-5 [Indian Act]. Web: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved February 7, Canada's Historical Context and Impact" 29 Man.

Osgoode Hall Law Journal. Institute on Governance. Retrieved July 17, Retrieved October 18, Canada Census data products.

Statistics Canada, Government of Canada. June 12, Retrieved September 18, Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. May 12, Retrieved October 2, Jr Ethnologue: Languages of the world 15 ed.

Justice Canada. Archived from the original PDF on March 24, Inuit Art [ An introduction. Search for further reading about tsawwassen first nations are alaska's indigenous women is an indigenous oriented, carbon dating back 10, , one of u.

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Shamans ' masks and rattles are used ceremoniously in dance, storytelling and music. The Indian Act banned manifestations of the Sun Dance , the Potlatch , and works of art depicting them.

It was not until the s and s that indigenous artists such as Mungo Martin , Bill Reid and Norval Morrisseau began to publicly renew and re-invent indigenous art traditions.

Currently there are indigenous artists practising in all media in Canada and two indigenous artists, Edward Poitras and Rebecca Belmore , have represented Canada at the Venice Biennale in and respectively.

The First Nations peoples of Canada comprise diverse ethnic groups, each with their own musical traditions. There are general similarities in the music, but is usually social public or ceremonial private.

Public, social music may be dance music accompanied by rattles and drums. Private, ceremonial music includes vocal songs with accompaniment on percussion , used to mark occasions like Midewiwin ceremonies and Sun Dances.

Traditionally, Aboriginal peoples used the materials at hand to make their instruments for centuries before Europeans immigrated to Canada.

Traditional percussion instruments such as drums were generally made of carved wood and animal hides. Traditional First Nations people consider song and dance to be sacred.

For years after Europeans came to Canada, First Nations people were forbidden to practice their ceremonies. In the 20th century, the First Nations population of Canada increased tenfold.

Since the s, the number of First Nations babies more than doubled and currently almost half of the First Nations population is under the age of As a result, the First Nations population of Canada is expected to increase in the coming decades.

In , there were 1,, Aboriginal people in Canada, accounting for 4. This was up from 3. There are distinct First Nations in Canada, originating across the country.

Indian reserves , established in Canadian law by treaties such as Treaty 7 , are the very limited contemporary lands of First Nations recognized by the non-indigenous governments.

There are more reserves in Canada than there are First Nations, as First Nations were ceded multiple reserves by treaty.

First Nations can be grouped into cultural areas based on their ancestors' primary lifeway , or occupation, at the time of European contact.

These culture areas correspond closely with physical and ecological regions of Canada. Ethnographers commonly classify indigenous peoples of the Americas in the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits called cultural areas.

See the individual article on each tribe , band society or First Nation. The Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast communities centred around ocean and river fishing; in the interior of British Columbia , hunting and gathering and river fishing.

In both of these areas, salmon was of chief importance. For the people of the plains, bison hunting was the primary activity. In the subarctic forest , other species such as the moose were more important.

For peoples near the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, shifting agriculture was practised, including the raising of maize, beans, and squash.

Today, Aboriginal people work in a variety of occupations and live outside their ancestral homes. The traditional cultures of their ancestors, shaped by nature, still exert a strong influence on their culture, from spirituality to political attitudes.

First Nations peoples face a number of problems to a greater degree than Canadians overall, some with living conditions comparable to developing countries like Haiti.

Canada's federal residential school system began in the mids, building upon a patchwork of boarding schools established and operated by various Christian denominations.

Member of Parliament for Assiniboia West, Nicholas Flood Davin, produced a report, known generally as the Davin Report, that recommended the establishment of a school system similar to that being created in the United States.

One of its chief goals was to remove Aboriginal children from "the influence of the wigwam", which he claimed was stronger than that of existing day schools, and keep them instead "constantly within the circle of civilized conditions".

While the history of the Indian Residential School system IRS is a checkered one, much criticism has been levelled at both the system and those who established and supported it.

Neglect and poor nutrition were often what Aboriginal children experienced, particularly in the early decades of the system's operation.

The stripping away of traditional native culture—sometimes referred to as "cultural genocide"—is another charge levelled at the residential schools.

In many schools, students were not allowed to speak their Indigenous languages or practice any of their own customs, and thus lost their sense of identity, inevitably driving a cultural wedge between children and their family.

By , attendance at some sort of school was mandatory for Aboriginal children in Canada. The Indian Act made education compulsory, and where there were no federal days schools—or, in later decades, a provincial public school—a residential school was the only choice.

In some cases, children could return home on weekends and holidays, but for those in schools established far away from remote communities, this was not possible.

The removal of children from their families and communities brought short and long term harm to many native communities.

While many schools had infirmaries and provided medical care in later decades, abuse of various kinds and crowded conditions in the first decades of the IRS history led to poor health and even death for a percentage of those enrolled.

It has been argued that the psychological and emotional trauma resulting from both the abuse and the removal of the children from their families and culture has resulted in substance abuse, greater domestic violence, unemployability, and increased rates of suicide.

Former students are now routinely referred to as "survivors". Not all Aboriginal children attended residential schools. During the period in which the schools operated, more than a third of indigenous children attended federal day schools, and about a third received no schooling at all.

It is however the residential school system that receives much of the blame for the various problems and challenges facing Canada's indigenous people today.

During the years in which the residential schools operated, they were regarded by most Canadians as a sensible and beneficial solution to native education, and in some cases, Aboriginal communities specifically requested that a residential school be built.

When the system began to closing down in the s, a significant number of communities asked that their school remain open.

The last Canadian residential school to close was Gordon Indian Residential School in Saskatchewan, founded in , and closed in The Christian denominations that operated the schools on behalf of the federal government have expressed regret and issued apologies for their part in a system that harmed many indigenous children.

In , the government issued an official apology to the students who were forced to attend the residential schools and their families.

In June , the federally-established Truth and Reconciliation Commission, charged with investigating and reporting on the residential school system, issued its summary report, and in December of the same year, its final report.

Chief Commissioner, Judge Murray Sinclair, has publicly declared the residential school system a deliberate act of cultural genocide against First Nations peoples.

In its report, the commission submitted 94 recommendations to the Canadian government, recommendations which, if implemented, would substantially improve indigenous race relations, increase quality of life for survivors and extended families, and help undo the damage caused by residential schools.

While the Liberal government, under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, has committed itself to improving the lives of Canada's indigenous people, and specifically to implementing the TRC recommendations, some of those recommendations may be beyond the power of the Canadian government.

The countless research documents assembled by the TRC will be archived in a special repository at the University of Manitoba. It is not unlikely for Aboriginal women living in poverty to not only tend to their own needs, but often tend to the needs of their elderly parents, care for loved ones in ill-health, as well as raising children; all of which is often supported only on a single income.

It is believed that homelessness and inadequate shelter are widespread problems facing Aboriginal families, in all settings.

A paramount conclusion by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples is that the repeated assaults on the culture and collective identity of the Aboriginal people has resulted in a weakened foundation of Aboriginal society and has contributed to the alienation that inevitably drives some to self-destructive and antisocial behaviour.

The social problems among Aboriginal people are, in large measure, a legacy of history. Aboriginals are also more likely to be the victims of crime.

This is particularly true in the younger population aged 15—34 , where acts of violence are two and a half times more likely to occur than in the older population.

This is especially true of males. Lack of education, poverty, unemployment and abuse all lead to higher crime rates.

Also, statistically, Aboriginals have a greater chance of conviction and subsequently, incarceration once convicted. They are also much less likely to receive parole during their sentence.

The Canadian federal government is responsible for health and social services on the reserve and in Inuit communities, while the provincial and territorial governments provide services elsewhere.

The divide between each level of government has led to a gap in services for Aboriginal people living off-reserve and in Canadian towns and cities.

Although Aboriginal people living off-reserve have access to the programs and services designed for the general population, these programs and services do not address the specific needs of Aboriginal people, nor is it delivered in a culturally appropriate way.

It has not been until recently that the Canadian federal government had to increase recognition to the needs for programs and services for Aboriginal people in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities.

It is however funding that lags the growth of urban Aboriginal populations and the uncoordinated delivery of services through various government departments would also pose as a barrier.

The federal subcommittee on Indigenous child welfare described a "jurisdictional web" in which there is little to no coordination with or between municipal, provincial and federal levels of government.

The health care services available to Aboriginal people is rarely delivered in a culturally sensitive approach. It is the constant cast of "the other" by the settler Canadian population that contaminates the delivery of such necessary services to Aboriginal peoples.

It was argued by Ontario finance minister Jim Flaherty in that the Canadian government could boost health-care funding for "real people in real towns" by cutting the bureaucracy that serves only Aboriginal peoples.

These types of statements, especially made by people often heard by a greater audience, are said to have detrimental and influential effects on the overall attitudes of settler population folks, as well as Aboriginal peoples.

There are marked differences between the epidemiology of diabetes in First Nation population compared to the general population. Reasons for the different rate of Type 2 Diabetes between First Nation and the general population include a complex combination of environmental lifestyle, diet, poverty and genetic and biological factors e.

Age-standardized rates show that the prevalence of diabetes among First Nations individuals living on-reserve is It is important to note that Aboriginal individuals are generally diagnosed at a younger age than non-Aboriginal individuals, and Aboriginal females experience higher rates of gestational diabetes than non-Aboriginal females.

The complications and prevalence of diabetes are seen among the Aboriginal population more often than non-Aboriginal population.

First Nations in Canada carry a disproportionate burden of the harms related to substance use. Life expectancy at birth is significantly lower for First Nations babies than for babies in the Canadian population as a whole.

In males the life expectancy for First Nations individuals was 69 years as opposed to 77 in the general population. Overall, First Nations individuals have some of the highest rates of suicide globally.

Suicide rates are more than twice the sex-specific rate and also three times the age-specific rates of non-Aboriginal Canadians.

This leads to differing expectations and cultural clashes within the community, the family and the individual.

At the community level, a general economic disadvantage is seen, exacerbated by unemployment and low education levels, leading to poverty, political disempowerment and community disorganization.

The family suffers through a loss of tradition as they attempt to assimilate into mainstream Canadian culture. These lead to low self-esteem in the individual as First Nations culture and tradition are marginalized affecting one's sense of self-identity.

These factors combine to create a world where First Nations individuals feel they cannot identify completely as Aboriginal, nor can they fully identify as mainstream Canadians.

When that balance cannot be found, many particularly youths turn to suicide as a way out. Approximately First Nation communities in Canada have had, and continue to have serious problems with the quality of their drinking water.

The residents of Neskantaga First Nation in Ontario have been forced to boil their water for the past 20 years to make it safe. Many First Nations are in the process of negotiating a modern treaty, which would grant them treaty rights.

These grievances often originate from a breach of treaty obligations or of the Indian Act by the government of Canada.

They can also involve mismanagement of indigenous land or assets by the Crown. Across Canada, there has been a large number of missing and murdered Aboriginal women since This amounts to almost 1, Aboriginal females either missing or murdered in just over 30 years.

This publication documents the official findings of this demographic as well as advises for future change. It finds that there are Aboriginal women still missing and 1, murdered, making for a total of 1, Additionally, there are shared characteristics among these cases: most of the murders were committed by men and were someone the victim knew, either a partner or an acquaintance.

Self-governance and preservation of indigenous territories become increasingly difficult as natural resources continue to be exploited by foreign companies.

Projects such as "mining, logging, hydroelectric construction, large-scale export oriented agribusiness or oil exploration" [ attribution needed ] are usually coupled with environmental degradation and occasionally violence and militarization.

Privatization of public services and reduction in the universality of health care produces negative repercussions for those of lower socioeconomic status in rural locations; these downsides are magnified for female Aboriginals.

Approximately 2, aboriginal people were murdered in Canada between and , out of 15, murders in Canada overall. Of the 2, murdered aboriginal Canadians, fully 71 per cent — 1, — were male.

According to summaries of seven consultation sessions posted to a government website, the desire to dedicate some attention to violence against indigenous men and boys has come up at four of the meetings.

These calls to extend the scope of the inquiry to include missing and murdered aboriginal people of all genders have met with resistance and been criticized as detracting from the current focus on the issue of missing and murdered aboriginal women.

Barbara Bailey, who was on the UN team that visited Canada in to investigate the violence, has said, "I think to detract now would really be a tragedy.

Let's fix that problem first and then we can begin to see what else is out there. Speaking on the matter, Minister of Indigenous Affairs , Carolyn Bennett has said, "Our mandate now is to get to the bottom of the tragedy of missing and murdered indigenous women and girls in Canada", citing sexism as being of specific concern.

Dawn Lavell-Harvard, the president of the Native Women's Association of Canada , has also weighed in on the issue by saying, "Absolutely [men] deserve the same amount of attention, just not necessarily in the same forum", neither that forum nor an equal level of attention have yet to materialize.

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