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Big Momma's House 2. Wicked Little Things. Super Sleuth Christmas Movie. Hallowed Ground. Jack and the Beanstalk. In treating such important patients, he sometimes sought consultations from other physicians, including the physician to Duke Albert and, by letter, the Polish Royal Physician.

In the spring of , Duke Albert —former Grand Master of the Teutonic Order who had converted the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights into a Lutheran and hereditary realm, the Duchy of Prussia , upon doing homage to his uncle, the King of Poland, Sigismund I —summoned Copernicus to Königsberg to attend the Duke's counselor, George von Kunheim , who had fallen seriously ill, and for whom the Prussian doctors seemed unable to do anything.

Copernicus went willingly; he had met von Kunheim during negotiations over reform of the coinage. And Copernicus had come to feel that Albert himself was not such a bad person; the two had many intellectual interests in common.

The Chapter readily gave Copernicus permission to go, as it wished to remain on good terms with the Duke, despite his Lutheran faith.

In about a month the patient recovered, and Copernicus returned to Frombork. For a time, he continued to receive reports on von Kunheim's condition, and to send him medical advice by letter.

Some of Copernicus's close friends turned Protestant, but Copernicus never showed a tendency in that direction. The first attacks on him came from Protestants.

In the play, Copernicus was caricatured as the eponymous Morosophus, a haughty, cold, aloof man who dabbled in astrology , considered himself inspired by God, and was rumored to have written a large work that was moldering in a chest.

Elsewhere Protestants were the first to react to news of Copernicus's theory. Melanchthon wrote:.

Some people believe that it is excellent and correct to work out a thing as absurd as did that Sarmatian [i. Indeed, wise rulers should have curbed such light-mindedness.

Nevertheless, in , eight years after Copernicus's death, astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published, under the sponsorship of Copernicus's former military adversary, the Protestant Duke Albert, the Prussian Tables , a set of astronomical tables based on Copernicus's work.

Astronomers and astrologers quickly adopted it in place of its predecessors. Some time before Copernicus made available to friends his " Commentariolus " "Little Commentary" , a manuscript describing his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis.

In , Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter delivered a series of lectures in Rome outlining Copernicus's theory. Pope Clement VII and several Catholic cardinals heard the lectures and were interested in the theory.

Some years ago word reached me concerning your proficiency, of which everybody constantly spoke. At that time I began to have a very high regard for you For I had learned that you had not merely mastered the discoveries of the ancient astronomers uncommonly well but had also formulated a new cosmology.

In it you maintain that the earth moves; that the sun occupies the lowest, and thus the central, place in the universe Therefore with the utmost earnestness I entreat you, most learned sir, unless I inconvenience you, to communicate this discovery of yours to scholars, and at the earliest possible moment to send me your writings on the sphere of the universe together with the tables and whatever else you have that is relevant to this subject By then Copernicus's work was nearing its definitive form, and rumors about his theory had reached educated people all over Europe.

Despite urgings from many quarters, Copernicus delayed publication of his book, perhaps from fear of criticism—a fear delicately expressed in the subsequent dedication of his masterpiece to Pope Paul III.

Scholars disagree on whether Copernicus's concern was limited to possible astronomical and philosophical objections, or whether he was also concerned about religious objections.

Copernicus was still working on De revolutionibus orbium coelestium even if not certain that he wanted to publish it when in Georg Joachim Rheticus , a Wittenberg mathematician, arrived in Frombork.

Philipp Melanchthon , a close theological ally of Martin Luther , had arranged for Rheticus to visit several astronomers and study with them. Rheticus became Copernicus's pupil, staying with him for two years and writing a book, Narratio prima First Account , outlining the essence of Copernicus's theory.

In Rheticus published a treatise on trigonometry by Copernicus later included as chapters 13 and 14 of Book I of De revolutionibus.

While Rheticus initially supervised the printing, he had to leave Nuremberg before it was completed, and he handed over the task of supervising the rest of the printing to a Lutheran theologian, Andreas Osiander.

Osiander added an unauthorised and unsigned preface, defending Copernicus' work against those who might be offended by its novel hypotheses.

He argued that "different hypotheses are sometimes offered for one and the same motion [and therefore] the astronomer will take as his first choice that hypothesis which is the easiest to grasp.

Toward the close of , Copernicus was seized with apoplexy and paralysis, and he died at age 70 on 24 May Copernicus was reportedly buried in Frombork Cathedral , where a epitaph stood until being defaced; it was replaced in For over two centuries, archaeologists searched the cathedral in vain for Copernicus' remains.

Efforts to locate them in , , had come to nought. The discovery was announced only after further research, on 3 November Dariusz Zajdel of the Polish Police Central Forensic Laboratory used the skull to reconstruct a face that closely resembled the features—including a broken nose and a scar above the left eye—on a Copernicus self-portrait.

The grave was in poor condition, and not all the remains of the skeleton were found; missing, among other things, was the lower jaw.

Copernicus's remains were reburied in the same spot in Frombork Cathedral where part of his skull and other bones had been found.

A black granite tombstone now identifies him as the founder of the heliocentric theory and also a church canon. The tombstone bears a representation of Copernicus's model of the Solar System—a golden Sun encircled by six of the planets.

Philolaus c. Thomas Heath gives the following English translation of Archimedes' text: [87]. You are now aware ['you' being King Gelon] that the "universe" is the name given by most astronomers to the sphere the centre of which is the centre of the earth, while its radius is equal to the straight line between the centre of the sun and the centre of the earth.

But Aristarchus has brought out a book consisting of certain hypotheses , wherein it appears, as a consequence of the assumptions made, that the universe is many times greater than the "universe" just mentioned.

His hypotheses are that the fixed stars and the sun remain unmoved, that the earth revolves about the sun on the circumference of a circle, the sun lying in the middle of the orbit , and that the sphere of the fixed stars, situated about the same centre as the sun, is so great that the circle in which he supposes the earth to revolve bears such a proportion to the distance of the fixed stars as the centre of the sphere bears to its surface.

Copernicus cited Aristarchus of Samos in an early unpublished manuscript of De Revolutionibus which still survives , though he removed the reference from his final published manuscript.

Copernicus was probably aware that Pythagoras's system involved a moving Earth. The Pythagorean system was mentioned by Aristotle.

Copernicus owned a copy of Giorgio Valla's De expetendis et fugiendis rebus , which included a translation of Plutarch's reference to Aristarchus's heliostaticism.

The prevailing theory during Copernicus's lifetime was the one that Ptolemy published in his Almagest c. Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated rapidly, approximately daily, while each of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon were embedded in their own, smaller spheres.

Ptolemy's system employed devices, including epicycles, deferents and equants , to account for observations that the paths of these bodies differed from simple, circular orbits centered on the Earth.

In the 12th century, Nur ad-Din al-Bitruji proposed a complete alternative to the Ptolemaic system although not heliocentric. Mathematical techniques developed in the 13th to 14th centuries by Mo'ayyeduddin al-Urdi , Nasir al-Din al-Tusi , and Ibn al-Shatir for geocentric models of planetary motions closely resemble some of those used later by Copernicus in his heliocentric models.

He had formulated his theory by That person in turn copied the document for further circulation, and presumably the new recipients did, too Copernicus' Commentariolus summarized his heliocentric theory.

It listed the "assumptions" upon which the theory was based, as follows: []. There is no one center of all the celestial circles [] or spheres.

The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only the center towards which heavy bodies move and the center of the lunar sphere. All the spheres surround the sun as if it were in the middle of them all, and therefore the center of the universe is near the sun.

The ratio of the earth's distance from the sun to the height of the firmament outermost celestial sphere containing the stars is so much smaller than the ratio of the earth's radius to its distance from the sun that the distance from the earth to the sun is imperceptible in comparison with the height of the firmament.

Whatever motion appears in the firmament arises not from any motion of the firmament, but from the earth's motion. The earth together with its circumjacent elements performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily motion, while the firmament and highest heaven abide unchanged.

What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere, with which we revolve about the sun like any other planet.

The earth has, then, more than one motion. The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets arises not from their motion but from the earth's.

The motion of the earth alone, therefore, suffices to explain so many apparent inequalities in the heavens.

De revolutionibus itself was divided into six sections or parts, called "books": []. Georg Joachim Rheticus could have been Copernicus's successor, but did not rise to the occasion.

Despite the near universal acceptance later of the heliocentric idea though not the epicycles or the circular orbits , Copernicus's theory was originally slow to catch on.

Arthur Koestler , in his popular book The Sleepwalkers , asserted that Copernicus's book had not been widely read on its first publication.

Gingerich published his conclusions in in The Book Nobody Read. The intellectual climate of the time "remained dominated by Aristotelian philosophy and the corresponding Ptolemaic astronomy.

At that time there was no reason to accept the Copernican theory, except for its mathematical simplicity [by avoiding using the equant in determining planetary positions].

It was only a half century later with the work of Kepler and Galileo that any substantial evidence defending Copernicanism appeared, starting "from the time when Galileo formulated the principle of inertia The immediate result of the publication of Copernicus's book was only mild controversy.

At the Council of Trent —63 neither Copernicus's theory nor calendar reform which would later use tables deduced from Copernicus's calculations were discussed.

Catholic side opposition only commenced seventy-three years later, when it was occasioned by Galileo. The first notable to move against Copernicanism was the Magister of the Holy Palace i.

Mark in Florence. Tolosani had written a treatise on reforming the calendar in which astronomy would play a large role and had attended the Fifth Lateran Council — to discuss the matter.

He had obtained a copy of De Revolutionibus in His denunciation of Copernicanism was written a year later, in , in an appendix to his unpublished work, On the Truth of Sacred Scripture.

Emulating the rationalistic style of Thomas Aquinas , Tolosani sought to refute Copernicanism by philosophical argument. Copernicanism was absurd, according to Tolosani, because it was scientifically unproven and unfounded.

First, Copernicus had assumed the motion of the Earth but offered no physical theory whereby one would deduce this motion. No one realized that the investigation into Copernicanism would result in a rethinking of the entire field of physics.

Second, Tolosani charged that Copernicus's thought process was backwards. He held that Copernicus had come up with his idea and then sought phenomena that would support it, rather than observing phenomena and deducing from them the idea of what caused them.

In this, Tolosani was linking Copernicus's mathematical equations with the practices of the Pythagoreans whom Aristotle had made arguments against, which were later picked up by Thomas Aquinas.

It was argued that mathematical numbers were a mere product of the intellect without any physical reality, and as such could not provide physical causes in the investigation of nature.

Some astronomical hypotheses at the time such as epicycles and eccentrics were seen as mere mathematical devices to adjust calculations of where the heavenly bodies would appear, rather than an explanation of the cause of those motions.

As Copernicus still maintained the idea of perfectly spherical orbits, he relied on epicycles. This "saving the phenomena" was seen as proof that astronomy and mathematics could not be taken as serious means to determine physical causes.

Tolosani invoked this view in his final critique of Copernicus, saying that his biggest error was that he had started with "inferior" fields of science to make pronouncements about "superior" fields.

Copernicus had used mathematics and astronomy to postulate about physics and cosmology, rather than beginning with the accepted principles of physics and cosmology to determine things about astronomy and mathematics.

Thus Copernicus seemed to be undermining the whole system of the philosophy of science at the time. Tolosani held that Copernicus had fallen into philosophical error because he had not been versed in physics and logic; anyone without such knowledge would make a poor astronomer and be unable to distinguish truth from falsehood.

Because Copernicanism had not met the criteria for scientific truth set out by Thomas Aquinas, Tolosani held that it could only be viewed as a wild unproven theory.

Tolosani recognized that the Ad Lectorem preface to Copernicus's book was not actually by him. Its thesis that astronomy as a whole would never be able to make truth claims was rejected by Tolosani though he still held that Copernicus's attempt to describe physical reality had been faulty ; he found it ridiculous that Ad Lectorem had been included in the book unaware that Copernicus had not authorized its inclusion.

Tolosani wrote: "By means of these words [of the Ad Lectorem ], the foolishness of this book's author is rebuked. For by a foolish effort he [Copernicus] tried to revive the weak Pythagorean opinion [that the element of fire was at the center of the Universe], long ago deservedly destroyed, since it is expressly contrary to human reason and also opposes holy writ.

From this situation, there could easily arise disagreements between Catholic expositors of holy scripture and those who might wish to adhere obstinately to this false opinion.

Moreover, it appears that he is unskilled with regard to [the interpretation of] holy scripture, since he contradicts several of its principles, not without danger of infidelity to himself and the readers of his book.

For it is stupid to contradict an opinion accepted by everyone over a very long time for the strongest reasons, unless the impugner uses more powerful and insoluble demonstrations and completely dissolves the opposed reasons.

But he does not do this in the least. Tolosani declared that he had written against Copernicus "for the purpose of preserving the truth to the common advantage of the Holy Church.

Robert Westman describes it as becoming a "dormant" viewpoint with "no audience in the Catholic world" of the late sixteenth century, but also notes that there is some evidence that it did become known to Tommaso Caccini , who would criticize Galileo in a sermon in December Tolosani may have criticized the Copernican theory as scientifically unproven and unfounded, but the theory also conflicted with the theology of the time, as can be seen in a sample of the works of John Calvin.

In his Commentary on Genesis he said that "We indeed are not ignorant that the circuit of the heavens is finite, and that the earth, like a little globe, is placed in the centre.

How could the earth hang suspended in the air were it not upheld by God's hand? By what means could it maintain itself unmoved, while the heavens above are in constant rapid motion, did not its Divine Maker fix and establish it.

This is averted by Joshua's prayers causing the Sun and the Moon to stand still. Martin Luther once made a remark about Copernicus, although without mentioning his name.

According to Anthony Lauterbach, while eating with Martin Luther the topic of Copernicus arose during dinner on 4 June in the same year as professor George Joachim Rheticus of the local University had been granted leave to visit him.

Luther is said to have remarked "So it goes now. Whoever wants to be clever must agree with nothing others esteem.

He must do something of his own. This is what that fellow does who wishes to turn the whole of astronomy upside down. Even in these things that are thrown into disorder I believe the Holy Scriptures, for Joshua commanded the sun to stand still and not the earth.

In John Aurifaber's account of the conversation Luther calls Copernicus "that fool" rather than "that fellow", this version is viewed by historians as less reliably sourced.

Luther's collaborator Philipp Melanchthon also took issue with Copernicanism. After receiving the first pages of Narratio Prima from Rheticus himself, Melanchthon wrote to Mithobius physician and mathematician Burkard Mithob of Feldkirch on 16 October condemning the theory and calling for it to be repressed by governmental force, writing "certain people believe it is a marvelous achievement to extol so crazy a thing, like that Polish astronomer who makes the earth move and the sun stand still.

Really, wise governments ought to repress impudence of mind. Rheticus' hopes were dashed when six years after the publication of De Revolutionibus Melanchthon published his Initia Doctrinae Physicae presenting three grounds to reject Copernicanism.

These were "the evidence of the senses, the thousand-year consensus of men of science, and the authority of the Bible". They maintain that neither the eighth sphere nor the sun moves, whereas they attribute motion to the other celestial spheres, and also place the earth among the heavenly bodies.

Nor were these jokes invented recently. There is still extant Archimedes' book on The Sand Reckoner ; in which he reports that Aristarchus of Samos propounded the paradox that the sun stands still and the earth revolves around the sun.

Even though subtle experts institute many investigations for the sake of exercising their ingenuity, nevertheless public proclamation of absurd opinions is indecent and sets a harmful example.

Another Protestant theologian who disparaged heliocentrism on scriptural grounds was John Owen. In a passing remark in an essay on the origin of the sabbath, he characterised "the late hypothesis, fixing the sun as in the centre of the world" as being "built on fallible phenomena, and advanced by many arbitrary presumptions against evident testimonies of Scripture.

In Roman Catholic circles, German Jesuit Nicolaus Serarius was one of the first to write against Copernicus's theory as heretical, citing the Joshua passage, in a work published in —, and again in a book in Nor can one answer that this is not a matter of faith, since if it is not a matter of faith 'as regards the topic,' it is a matter of faith 'as regards the speaker': and so it would be heretical to say that Abraham did not have two children and Jacob twelve, as well as to say that Christ was not born of a virgin, because both are said by the Holy Spirit through the mouth of prophets and apostles.

Perhaps the most influential opponent of the Copernican theory was Francesco Ingoli , a Catholic priest.

Ingoli wrote a January essay to Galileo presenting more than twenty arguments against the Copernican theory. The physical and mathematical arguments were of uneven quality, but many of them came directly from the writings of Tycho Brahe , and Ingoli repeatedly cited Brahe, the leading astronomer of the era.

These included arguments about the effect of a moving Earth on the trajectory of projectiles, and about parallax and Brahe's argument that the Copernican theory required that stars be absurdly large.

Two of Ingoli's theological issues with the Copernican theory were "common Catholic beliefs not directly traceable to Scripture: the doctrine that hell is located at the center of Earth and is most distant from heaven; and the explicit assertion that Earth is motionless in a hymn sung on Tuesdays as part of the Liturgy of the Hours of the Divine Office prayers regularly recited by priests.

He dismissed arguments that they should be taken metaphorically, saying "Replies which assert that Scripture speaks according to our mode of understanding are not satisfactory: both because in explaining the Sacred Writings the rule is always to preserve the literal sense, when it is possible, as it is in this case; and also because all the [Church] Fathers unanimously take this passage to mean that the Sun which was truly moving stopped at Joshua's request.

An interpretation which is contrary to the unanimous consent of the Fathers is condemned by the Council of Trent, Session IV, in the decree on the edition and use of the Sacred Books.

Furthermore, although the Council speaks about matters of faith and morals, nevertheless it cannot be denied that the Holy Fathers would be displeased with an interpretation of Sacred Scriptures which is contrary to their common agreement.

In March , in connection with the Galileo affair , the Roman Catholic Church's Congregation of the Index issued a decree suspending De revolutionibus until it could be "corrected," on the grounds of ensuring that Copernicanism, which it described as a "false Pythagorean doctrine, altogether contrary to the Holy Scripture," would not "creep any further to the prejudice of Catholic truth.

On the orders of Pope Paul V , Cardinal Robert Bellarmine gave Galileo prior notice that the decree was about to be issued, and warned him that he could not "hold or defend" the Copernican doctrine.

In Galileo Galilei was convicted of grave suspicion of heresy for "following the position of Copernicus, which is contrary to the true sense and authority of Holy Scripture", [] and was placed under house arrest for the rest of his life.

At the instance of Roger Boscovich , the Catholic Church's Index of Prohibited Books omitted the general prohibition of works defending heliocentrism, [] but retained the specific prohibitions of the original uncensored versions of De revolutionibus and Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.

Those prohibitions were finally dropped from the Index. There has been discussion of Copernicus' nationality and of whether it is meaningful to ascribe to him a nationality in the modern sense.

Nicolaus Copernicus was born and raised in Royal Prussia , a semiautonomous and polyglot region of the Kingdom of Poland.

When he later studied in Italy, at the University of Bologna , he joined the German Nation , a student organization for German-speakers of all allegiances Germany would not become a nation-state until Copernicus' father lent money to Poland's King Casimir IV Jagiellon to finance the war against the Teutonic Knights, [] but the inhabitants of Royal Prussia also resisted the Polish crown's efforts for greater control over the region.

Sheila Rabin, writing in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , describes Copernicus as a "child of a German family [who] was a subject of the Polish crown", [10] while Manfred Weissenbacher writes that Copernicus's father was a Germanized Pole.

Historian Michael Burleigh describes the nationality debate as a "totally insignificant battle" between German and Polish scholars during the interwar period.

Copernicia , a genus of palm trees native to South America and the Greater Antilles, was named after Copernicus in Become a subscriber or patron.

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